Water Boundaries (Wiley Series in Surveying and Boundary Control)

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Utilities may or may not be shown based on the specified scope of work. Fences, Walls and Other Improvements: Generally, fences and walls are evidence of possession of a landowner and, thus, are an indication of a boundary line location. If nothing else, they are usually at least the intent of the boundary line location, because their placement is normally intended to be on or very near the boundary of the parcel.

One of the issues that can arise when a fence, wall or other improvements such as shrubbery or trees are placed on a boundary line is that they also encroach over the boundary line. To prevent a conflict with a neighbor, a landowner who wants to erect a fence or wall or plant shrubbery would be wise to make sure that the construction of the structure or the plantings falls within the boundaries of his or her land parcel.


Alleys and Driveway: Alleys and driveways, like roads, are a track for travel that forms a means of communication between one place and another. Alleys, like public roads, are dedicated streets that are commonly created to give a way through the middle of a block to give access to other properties. Alleys may also provide access for utilities. Normally, alleys do not cause boundary problems except sometimes they are never opened or used.

In disputed cases, the landowner may think that he owns land that he does not.

Rapid mixing and exchange of deep-ocean waters in an abyssal boundary current

Only a legal document can verify such ownership. Driveways are normally intended for private use to provide access to a particular parcel. When the driveway terminates at the subject parcel, this generally does not create a problem. However, when the driveway or crossing continues along the subject parcel to provide access to another property, an easement or unwritten right may evolve over a period of time under certain conditions if an easement does not specifically already exist for this driveway. In either instance it is a burden to the property that is best shown on the survey.

Cadastral surveying

Flood Zones : Flood zones, or the flood plain, is land along the course of a river, stream or tributary that is subject to inundation during periods of high water that exceed normal bank-full elevation. FIRMs are used to determine if a parcel is in the flood plain and, if so, how much of the property is within the flood plain.

The FIRM provides this information by graphically showing the limits of the flood plain and, in areas where more detail study has been conducted, the maps that show the elevation limits of the flood plain. The existence and location of a flood plain may determine whether or not a homeowner is required to have flood insurance, especially if that property has a mortgage on it. Zoning , Building and Subdivision Restrictions: As a survey matter, zoning, building and subdivision requirements may place restrictions upon the amount of area within a parcel that the landowner can develop.

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Most financial lenders who require that a survey be made of the subject property want the zoning shown on the face of the plat. Building height restrictions are sometimes required as well, and the height of an existing building may need to be shown to confirm that it falls within the local zoning height restrictions. Contours and Elevations: A contour is an imaginary line on the ground, all points of which are at the same elevation above a specified datum surface. A contour can be illustrated by the shoreline of a body of water whose surface is at the elevation represented by the contour.

A contour interval is the difference in elevation between adjacent contours on a map. A spot elevation is a point on a map whose height for that particular point is noted. The reference datum is generally mean sea level, but an arbitrary reference datum may also be used.

Water Boundaries (Wiley Series in Surveying and Boundary Control) […

Contours and spot elevations are used to create topographic maps. Topographic maps present the horizontal and vertical positions of the features represented on the subject property. Interior Lot Lines: Sometimes surveys are performed so that, instead of subdividing a larger parcel into smaller parcels, a number of smaller parcels are combined into one larger parcel. This type of survey is commonly called a recombination survey.

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Showing these interior lot lines, which are the former boundary lines, is a common practice in the preparation of recombination plats. This information assists the reader in knowing which of the smaller parcels were absorbed into the larger parcel and what their position was within the larger parcel. Plat Evaluation Checklist: A general checklist of items one can expect of see on a survey plat are these:.

North arrow and bearing base 2. Date of the survey 3. Name and address of the surveyor 4. Signature and seal of the land surveyor 5. Adjoining property owners 6. Dimensions of all the property sides 7. Bearings along all the property sides 8. Type of survey 9. Certification Notes Area State Corporate Seal or Certificate of Authorization number if required.

Evaluating the Age of the Survey: There is more to evaluating the age of the survey than simply reading the date of the survey plat. Most lending agencies have strict rules regarding the acceptable amount of elapsed time between a survey and a mortgage loan. These agencies have learned, through experience that the possession and use of the land can change quickly in a short period of time. Buildings can be erected, expanded or removed. There are many activities or occurrences that can alter the use and enjoyment and thereby the title of real property. Determining the Purpose of the Survey: A survey plat in and of itself indicates that a business arrangement was created between a land surveyor and others interested in some aspect of the subject property.

Finding my property line with Compass, GPS and Survey Plat

Many items that could be of particular interest to an additional third party, such as easements or flood hazard, may not even be a concern of the surveyor if the original scope of work did not include those particular details. If a specific reason for the performance of a survey exists, the surveyor must be completely aware of the purpose so that she or he may tailor the work to suit the needs of the client.

Often, a survey, alone, may not reveal items of particular concern.

Examining the Survey for Gross Discrepancies: Surveys that are performed and plats that are drawn by human beings are subject to the possibility of errors or omissions. The most difficult blunders to detect in the surveying profession often occur during the final drafting or printing of a survey map. These errors can take the form of spelling errors, misprints, obvious omissions or the transpositions of numbers or letters.

If a given distance or bearing seems impossible, the client should contact the surveyor for an explanation. If the discrepancy is the result of a refinement or a correction of a former value, the surveyor will inform the client. If an error has indeed occurred, the surveyor will appreciate the opportunity to correct the mistake before the error has a chance to go into perpetuity. The Survey Plat vs. The Deed: Differences between deed data and survey data is not uncommon. These differences are usually the result of the improved or updated information about the subject parcel of land that would be shown on the plat.

The surveyor must make several judgmental decisions during the interpretation of boundary evidence discovered during a survey. Therefore, the information contained in a deed can be slightly to significantly different from the information shown on the survey. Distance corrections are common and are likely the result of improved technology, or simply new evidence, among other contingencies.

Directions bearings are more prone to vary from the deed information than distances. Easements: An easement is a nonpossessing interest or right held by one person in the land of another. An easement gives one person the right to use the land of another within the easement area for a specific purpose. An easement, however, does not keep the owner from enjoying the portion of his or her property burdened by the easement. An easement may be the result of a written agreement or the easement may be the result of use. Surface easements give the right to use only the surface of the land.

Easements for access, flowage and for rights of way fall into this category. Subsurface easements give the right to use the land at a designated distance below the surface of the land. Pipelines, underground power and telephone lines, water and sewer lines are in subsurface easements. Overhead easements grant the right to use the space at a designated distance above the surface of the land. Overhead power and telephone lines, avigation flight and scenic easements are examples of overhead easements. Easements may take one of two forms: those that are obvious apparent and those that are hidden.

The surveyor will discover easements that are obvious, i.

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Easements that are hidden from obvious view may not be discovered by the surveyor. Hidden easements that are written and recorded will be discovered by a title examination only.

Surveyors do not normally perform complete title examinations unless they are requested to do so by the client. If a client wants to have all of the easements or other statutory restrictions associated with a real property parcel shown on a survey plat, the surveyor must be informed of their existence. The client should compare each survey plat with the title report for evidence of hidden, but recorded, easements. Many clients will provide a surveyor with a copy of a title insurance commitment, if one was prepared, and include in the scope of work with the surveyor a requirement to address any easements noted in the title report.

Encroachments: Encroachments are physical objects that invade upon the rights of another. An encroachment occurs when that object crosses the boundary lines of the property. Encroachments create title and title insurance problems for property owners, title insurance companies and lenders.

Most standard survey specifications and state minimum technical standards require the surveyor to show encroachments because of the effect these encroachments can have upon a property. Encroachments are not limited to aboveground issues. Underground encroachments that are not visible can also be present. These encroachments can include building foundations, underground storage facilities, and underground utilities. Survey Limitations Surveyor Specified Limits: Because of the increasing litigious nature of our society, surveyors in recent years have taken greater pains to state what a survey does or does not show.